Focus ST: Red, Hot & Orange?
When you think “Valencia,” you might think “orange.” Which is correct in that the orange was named after the Spanish city, although it was hybridized in California (and contributed to the name of Orange County). But you might think of “Valencia” in the context of another citrusy name, “Tangerine Scream,” the signature production color for the 2013 Ford Focus ST. Yes, this car, like other Focus models available in the U.S., is produced at the Ford Michigan Assembly Plant.
But what makes the car significant is the 2.0-liter, EcoBoost engine, which is produced at a powertrain plant in, yes, Valencia, Spain.
According to Tim Smith, Ford SVT Vehicle Engineering, the 2.0-liter EcoBoost engine produces 252 hp @ 5,500 rpm and 270 lb-ft of torque @ 2,500 rpm. It is mated to a six-speed manual transmission. The vehicle has a top speed of 154 mph.
According to Scott Makowski, manager, Global I4 Engine Engineering, the engine features polished bucket tappets, twin independent variable valve timing, high-temperature sodium-filed exhaust valves, direct injection fuel system with a high-pressure fuel pump, light-weight composite intake manifold and cam cover, tuned intake manifold, piston cooling jets, integrated exhaust manifold in the cylinder head, and a turbo assembly with a cast stainless steel turbine housing. (The use of the integrated exhaust manifold in the cylinder head permits smaller internal passageways, or plenum volumes, so that more exhaust gases are quickly directed into the turbo than is possible with a separate head-and-manifold design.)
One interesting characteristic of this engine—which is also used in the 2013 Ford Focus—is that its turbocharger wheel is based with a high temperature alloy with inclusions of tungsten and cobalt that provides it with the capability of operating at up to 1,050°C. As a point of comparison, the turbine wheel used in the 2.0-liter turbocharged engines used in the Ford Edge and Explorer has an upper temperature limit of 970°C.
Apparently, the BorgWarner K03 turbocharger used has water and oil cooling. While oil is the primary coolant during engine operation, when the engine is shut off, the water system is used to draw heat away from the turbocharger. So the ability to handle the heat both during driving and after the engine is no longer running helps assure the reliability and mechanical integrity of the turbo.