Germany’s federal cartel office has fined BMW, Daimler and Volkswagen a combined €100 million ($111 million) for fixing the size of surcharges on certain steel purchases.
The three carmakers met regularly between 2004 and 2013 with steel companies and others in their supply chains to set uniform surcharges on their purchases, Reuters reports. The resulting prices were in effect until at least 2016, according to the cartel office.
The scheme affected only the purchase of rod steel, which is used to make such components as gears and steering rods. Authorities say such items account for less than 1% of a vehicle’s value.
Although the RAV4 has plenty of heritage in the small crossover segment, competition has gotten a whole lot tougher, so Toyota has made significant changes to the fourth-generation model.
According to Sandor Piszar, Chevrolet truck marketing director, “We engineer and build our trucks with customers’ expectations in mind.
For conducting business in the U.S. market, Toyota has historically had several separate business entities: a sales and distribution company headquartered in California (Toyota Motor Sales, USA); manufacturing operations (Toyota Motor Manufacturing North America); a racing subsidiary (Toyota Racing Development, USA); the Toyota Technical Center for R&D in Ann Arbor; and a design facility in California (Calty Design Research, Inc.). On April 1, 2006, Toyota merged its R&D operations and its manufacturing operations into a single company.